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Occupational Lead Poisoning in the United States: Clinical and Biochemical Findings Related to Blood Lead Levels.


PB90194564

Publication Date 1977
Personal Author Baker, E. L.; Landrigan, P. J.; Barbour, A. G.; Cox, D. H.; Folland, D. S.
Page Count 38
Abstract A study was made of 160 lead (7439921) exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.
Keywords
  • Lead poisoning
  • Blood chemical analysis
  • Biochemistry
  • Tables(Data)
  • Graphs(Charts)
  • Smelters
  • Occupational exposure
  • Creatinine
  • United States
  • Blood urea nitrogen
  • CAS 7439921
Source Agency
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NTIS Subject Category
  • 57Y - Toxicology
  • 44G - Environmental & Occupational Factors
Corporate Authors Bureau of Epidemiology, Atlanta, GA.; National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH.; Utah Dept. of Health, Salt Lake City.; Tennessee Dept. of Health and Environment, Nashville.
Supplemental Notes Prepared in cooperation with National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH., Tennessee Dept. of Health and Environment, Nashville, and Utah Dept. of Health, Salt Lake City.
Document Type Technical Report
NTIS Issue Number 199012
Occupational Lead Poisoning in the United States: Clinical and Biochemical Findings Related to Blood Lead Levels.
Occupational Lead Poisoning in the United States: Clinical and Biochemical Findings Related to Blood Lead Levels.
PB90194564

  • Lead poisoning
  • Blood chemical analysis
  • Biochemistry
  • Tables(Data)
  • Graphs(Charts)
  • Smelters
  • Occupational exposure
  • Creatinine
  • United States
  • Blood urea nitrogen
  • CAS 7439921
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  • 57Y - Toxicology
  • 44G - Environmental & Occupational Factors
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