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Breathing Resistance and Dead Space in Respiratory Protective Devices.


PB273794

Publication Date 1976
Personal Author James, R. H.
Page Count 38
Abstract A review reveals that respirators, in general, are worn by only about 20% of workers in need of respiratory protection against hazardous substances in the workplace, primarily due to generalized 'discomfort'. Breathing resistance and equipment dead space are two of the most important design factors contributing to this discomfort. The principal physiological responses to added breathing resistance appear to be hypoventilation, reduced oxygen consumption, a 'flattened' and prolonged pattern in the breathing phase to which resistance has been added, increased respiratory work, and a tendency for increased functional residual lung capacity and increased carbon dioxide retention. Added dead space forces rebreathing of exhaled carbon dioxide which, in turn, stimulates compensatory hyperventilation to maintain a normal alveolar PC02. The mechanism for maintaining a normal PC02 seems effective up to 2% for short-term and to 1% C02 for long-term exposures.
Keywords
  • Respirators
  • Protectors
  • Industrial hygiene
  • Hazardous materials
  • Breathing apparatus
  • Medical equipment
  • Responses
  • Physiological effects
  • Human factors engineering
  • Psychological effects
  • Regulations
  • Recommendations
  • Reviews
  • Respiratory system
  • Comfort
  • Toxic substances
  • Hypoventilation
  • Occupational safety and health
Source Agency
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NTIS Subject Category
  • 95D - Human Factors Engineering
  • 94H - Industrial Safety Engineering
  • 57U - Public Health & Industrial Medicine
Corporate Authors National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio. Div. of Biomedical and Behavioral Science.
Document Type Technical Report
NTIS Issue Number 197803
Breathing Resistance and Dead Space in Respiratory Protective Devices.
Breathing Resistance and Dead Space in Respiratory Protective Devices.
PB273794

  • Respirators
  • Protectors
  • Industrial hygiene
  • Hazardous materials
  • Breathing apparatus
  • Medical equipment
  • Responses
  • Physiological effects
  • Human factors engineering
  • Psychological effects
  • Regulations
  • Recommendations
  • Reviews
  • Respiratory system
  • Comfort
  • Toxic substances
  • Hypoventilation
  • Occupational safety and health
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  • 95D - Human Factors Engineering
  • 94H - Industrial Safety Engineering
  • 57U - Public Health & Industrial Medicine
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