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Civil Defense Shelters: A State-of-the-Art Assessment - 1986.


ADA178152

Publication Date 1986
Personal Author Chester, C. V.; Zimmerman, G. P.
Page Count 316
Abstract The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. The principal technical barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose blast shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per space, depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. The risk area population requiring blast protection is approximately 160 million. The very low cost options open to the U.S. Government, with its present civil defense budget, remain: (1) maintain the inventory on fallout shelter and identify space with some blast protection potential; (2) plan for 'crisis upgrading' to improve existing space in a crisis, and (3) plan for construction of expedient shelter in a crisis. Fallout shelter might be mandated in appropriate new construction outside risk areas at little cost to the government. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include: (1) requiring modified limestone mining practices, where appropriate, to generate useable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings, and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction. Keywords: Natural and technological hazards, Nuclear war survival, Fallout protection.
Keywords
  • Fallout shelters
  • Bibliographies
  • Civil defense
  • Blast resistant shelters
  • Population
  • Blast
  • Protection
  • Department of defense
  • Military budgets
  • Basements
  • Dual mode
  • Shelters
  • Defense planning
  • Literature surveys
  • Limestone
  • Mining engineering
  • Costs
  • Construction
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Weapons effects
  • Retrofitting
  • State of the art
  • Low costs
  • Inventory
  • Hazards
  • Nuclear explosions
  • Survival(Personnel)
  • Barriers
Source Agency
  • Non Paid ADAS
NTIS Subject Category
  • 91I - Emergency Services & Planning
  • 89 - Building Industry Technology
  • 43D - Police, Fire, & Emergency Services
  • 74H - Nuclear Warfare
  • 88E - Reference Materials
Corporate Authors Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.
Document Type Bibliography
Title Note Final rept.
NTIS Issue Number 198714
Contract Number
  • DE-AC05-840R21400
Civil Defense Shelters: A State-of-the-Art Assessment - 1986.
Civil Defense Shelters: A State-of-the-Art Assessment - 1986.
ADA178152

  • Fallout shelters
  • Bibliographies
  • Civil defense
  • Blast resistant shelters
  • Population
  • Blast
  • Protection
  • Department of defense
  • Military budgets
  • Basements
  • Dual mode
  • Shelters
  • Defense planning
  • Literature surveys
  • Limestone
  • Mining engineering
  • Costs
  • Construction
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Weapons effects
  • Retrofitting
  • State of the art
  • Low costs
  • Inventory
  • Hazards
  • Nuclear explosions
  • Survival(Personnel)
  • Barriers
  • Non Paid ADAS
  • 91I - Emergency Services & Planning
  • 89 - Building Industry Technology
  • 43D - Police, Fire, & Emergency Services
  • 74H - Nuclear Warfare
  • 88E - Reference Materials
  • DE-AC05-840R21400
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